Skip to Content

Narrow Your List

Publications & Research Products

Products found: 170
  • Prices, Taxes, and the Demand for Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

    This presentation was given by Frank Chaloupka at the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco – Europe Annual Meeting in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 8, 2016. The presentation covers demand for e-cigarettes, including the effects of prices on e-cigarette demand and cross-price and other effects. It also covers options for ENDS taxation and potential e-cigarette tax revenues.

  • Progression toward a Smoke-Free Home: The Role of Partial Bans

    Abstract: Background: There is no safe level of secondhand smoke. Households with partial smoking bans may have a higher level of readiness to go smoke-free than households with no restrictions. Understanding who establishes partial bans, what these bans cover, and whether they are an intermediate step in going smoke-free would help to inform smoke-free home interventions. Design/Methods: Participants were recruited from United Way of Greater Atlanta's 2-1-1 contact center to participate in an intervention trial focused on creating smoke-free homes. Eligible participants reported smoking was allowed in the home at baseline. Data were collected at baseline, three and six months via telephone interview. Those with complete data at all three time points were included in analyses (n=375). Results: Participants were largely African American (84.2%) and female (84.3). The majority (58.5%) had annual household incomes less than $10,000. At baseline, 61.3% reported a partial smoking ban and 38.7% reported no ban. Relative to no ban, partial bans were associated with gender, education level, marital status, and age. Partial bans most often meant smoking was allowed only in designated rooms (52.6%). Other common rules included: no smoking in the presence of children (18.4%) and smoking allowed in combination with perceived harm reduction behaviors such as an open window or running fan (9.8%). A higher percentage of households with partial bans at baseline were smoke-free at six months (36.5%) than were those with no bans at baseline (22.1%). Conclusions: Households with partial smoking bans may be especially receptive to smoke-free home interventions. R Haardörfer, M Kegler, L Bundy, C Escoffery, C Berg, M Fernandez, R Williams, M Hovell. (2015 March). Progression toward a Smoke-Free Home: The Role of Partial Bans. Presentation at the 2015 World Conference on Tobacco or Health, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

  • Public support for Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act point-of-sale provisions: Results of a national study

    Objectives. We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Methods. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Results. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors’ access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Conclusions. Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment.

  • Quitting smoking before and after varenicline: a population study based on two representative samples of US smokers

    Background. Varenicline is known to have greater efficacy than other pharmacotherapy for treating nicotine dependence and has gained popularity since its introduction in 2006. This study examines if adding varenicline to existing pharmacotherapies increased the population cessation rate. Methods. Data are from two cross-sectional US Current Population Surveys—Tobacco Use Supplements (2003 and 2010–2011). Smokers and recent quitters 18 or older (N=34 869 in 2003, N=27 751 in 2010–2011) were asked if they had used varenicline, bupropion or nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) in their most recent quit attempt. The annual cessation rate, as well as the per cent of smokers who had quit for ≥3 months, was compared between surveys. Results. Varenicline use increased from 0% in 2003 to 10.9% in 2010–2011, while use of bupropion decreased from 9.1% to 3.5%, and NRT from 24.5% to 22.4%. Use of any pharmacotherapy increased by 2.4 percentage points. Varenicline users stayed on cessation aids longer and were less likely to relapse than users of other pharmacotherapies in the first 3 months of a quit attempt, after which the difference was no longer significant. The change in annual cessation rate was negligible, from 4.5% in 2003 to 4.7% in 2010–2011( p=0.36). Conclusions. Addition of varenicline to the list of approved cessation aids has mainly led to displacement of other therapies. As a result, there was no meaningful change in population cessation rate despite a remarkable increase in varenicline use. The population impact of a new therapy is a function of more than efficacy or reach of the therapy.

  • Rapidly increasing promotional expenditures for e-cigarettes

    Awareness and use of e-cigarettes have increased rapidly, and the products now represent a billion-dollar industry in the USA.Public health concerns about e-cigarettes centre on their potential appeal to the youth market,limited scientific evidence regarding their impact on individual and population health,and inconsistent product standards, including variations in nicotine content within and across brands.While some US cities have extended public smoking bans to cover e-cigarettes or aken other restrictive measures, the products remain unregulated at the federal level. Globally, there is significant variation in how products are treated, with some countries including Canada and Australia taking a more restrictive approach.A recent proliferation of e-cigarette marketing—including ads in media where traditional tobacco advertising has long been prohibited, such as television—likely plays a key role in the exponential growth of the products’ popularity. With some exceptions, reports of e-cigarette marketing to-date have been mainly anecdotal; surveillance and tracking of the quantity and content of such marketing is much needed.

  • Reactions to Cigarette Taxes and Related Messaging: Is the South Different?

    OBJECTIVES: Given the lag in tobacco control policies in the southeastern US, we examined differences in reactions to tobacco taxes and related messaging among Southeasterners vs. non-Southeasterners. METHODS: In 2013, a cross-sectional online survey using quota-based sampling was conducted assessing tobacco use, attitudes/knowledge regarding tobacco taxation, and reactions to related messaging (health, youth prevention, economic impact, individual rights/responsibility, morality/religion, hospitality). RESULTS: Of 2501 participants, 36.7% were past 30-day smokers; 26.7% were Southeasterners. Compared to others, Southeasterners more likely believed that their state was in the bottom 20 states in tobacco taxes (p < .001) and less likely reported that their taxes were too high (p < .001). Regression analysis indicated that correlates of opposition to increased taxes included being older, having less education, being an infrequent church-attender, and being a current smoker (p's < .001); being a Southeasterner was not associated. Compared to others, Southeasterners were more likely to find pro-tobacco tax messages related to prevention and hospitality as more persuasive (p < .05) and anti-tobacco tax messaging related to the unfairness of tobacco taxes to smokers (p = .050) less persuasive. CONCLUSIONS: Given that Southeasterners are receptive to increased taxation, other factors must contribute to lagging policy and must be addressed.

  • Reactions to Smoke-free Policies and Messaging Strategies in Support and Opposition: A Comparison of Southerners versus non-Southerners in the U.S.

  • Reactions to Smoke-free Policies in the Southeastern U.S. and to Messaging Strategies in Support and Opposition.

    Berg, C. J., Thrasher, J. F., Haardӧrfer, R., O’Connor, J., & Kegler, M. C. (2015, November). Reactions to Smoke-free Policies in the Southeastern U.S. and to Messaging Strategies in Support and Opposition. Oral presentation at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Chicago, Illinois.

  • Reducing harm, moving toward quitting, or just diversifying nicotine sources? Dual use and quitting behavior among usersw of traditional cigarettes

    Emery S, Huang J, Kim Y, Tran H. Poster presented at the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT), Poster Session 2, Poster #108, Thursday, February 26, 2015.

  • Reducing Tobacco Use and Access Through Strengthened Minimum Price Laws

    Higher prices reduce consumption and initiation of tobacco products. A minimum price law that establishes a high statutory minimum price and prohibits the industry's discounting tactics for tobacco products is a promising pricing strategy as an alternative to excise tax increases. Although some states have adopted minimum price laws on the basis of statutorily defined price "markups" over the invoice price, existing state laws have been largely ineffective at increasing the retail price. We analyzed 3 new variations of minimum price laws that hold great potential for raising tobacco prices and reducing consumption: (1) a flat rate minimum price law similar to a recent enactment in New York City, (2) an enhanced markup law, and (3) a law that incorporates both elements.