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  • A process evaluation of an intervention to promote home smoking bans among low income households.

    Exposure to secondhand smoke occurs primarily in the home due to passage of smoke-free legislation. Creation of a total household smoking ban can reduce associated health conditions such as asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and stroke. This paper describes the results of a randomized control trial of a minimal intervention to create smoke-free homes. 2-1-1 callers were invited to participate in the trial and were randomized to an intervention (mailings and a coaching call) or a control group (no intervention). We assessed reach, dose, fidelity, and receptivity to the intervention through program records and a 3-month follow-up survey with intervention participants. For the intervention materials, materials were mailed to 244 participants (99.2%) and 227 participants (92.3%) received the coaching call intervention. 92.3% received all intervention components. Participants who had full household bans at 3 months were more likely to conduct behaviors leading to a smoke-free home (i.e., making a list of reasons, having a family talk, posting a pledge) than were those with no/partial ban. The intervention materials also were rated higher in relevance and usefulness by non-smokers than smokers. Results demonstrate that this minimal intervention had high fidelity to the delivery of components and relatively high receptivity.

  • A systematic review of store audit methods for assessing tobacco marketing and products at the point of sale

    Objective Over four-fifths of reported expenditures for marketing tobacco products occur at the retail point of sale (POS). To date, no systematic review has synthesised the methods used for surveillance of POS marketing. This review sought to describe the audit objectives, methods and measures used to study retail tobacco environments.Methods We systematically searched 11 academic databases for papers indexed on or before 14 March 2012, identifying 2906 papers. Two coders independently reviewed each abstract or full text to identify papers with the following criteria: (1) data collectors visited and assessed (2) retail environments using (3) a data collection instrument for (4) tobacco products or marketing. We excluded papers where limited measures of products and/or marketing were incidental. Two abstractors independently coded included papers for research aims, locale, methods, measures used and measurement properties. We calculated descriptive statistics regarding the use of four P's of marketing (product, price, placement, promotion) and for measures of study design, sampling strategy and sample size.Results We identified 88 store audit studies. Most studies focus on enumerating the number of signs or other promotions. Several strengths, particularly in sampling, are noted, but substantial improvements are indicated in the reporting of reliability, validity and audit procedures.Conclusions Audits of POS tobacco marketing have made important contributions to understanding industry behaviour, the uses of marketing and resulting health behaviours. Increased emphasis on standardisation and the use of theory are needed in the field. We propose key components of audit methodology that should be routinely reported.

  • Adult Tobacco Survey: Dual/poly-use of e-cigarettes with other tobacco products and other focused analyses

    A random-digit dial telephone survey was conducted from November 2012 through April 2013 with 1,444 adult (18+) tobacco users in the U.S. residing in zip codes associated with school enrollment zones for traditional public high schools participating in the 2012 Monitoring the Future school-based surveys of 8th, 10th and 12th grade students. The poster will describe the methods used to administer the survey, the sample recruited, the survey instrument, and some preliminary overall findings. The poster will also describe the paper submitted on e-cigarette use and dual/poly tobacco use, as well as other papers from the data that are in development.

  • An analysis of quantity and content of three-year electronic cigarette promotion on Twitter

    SRNT, Chicago, IL, 2016. Huang J, Binns S, Shi Y, Tran H, Emery S, Carrión V. An analysis of quantity and content of three-year electronic cigarette promotion on Twitter. Poster Session #2, Poster #33, Thursday, March 3.

  • Are you scared yet? Evaluating fear appeal messages in tweets about the Tips Campaign

    In March 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched “Tips from Former Smokers,” a $54 million national campaign featuring individuals experiencing long-term health consequences of smoking. The campaign approach was based on strong evidence that antitobacco ads portraying fear, graphic images, and personal testimonials are associated with attitudinal and behavior change. Yet it was also controversial; critics cited the danger that viewers might reject such intensely graphic messages. Tasked with informing this debate, our study analyzes the corpus of Tips campaign-related tweets obtained via the Twitter Firehose. We provide a novel and rigorous method for media campaign evaluation within the framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model. Among the relevant tweets, 87% showed evidence of message acceptance, whereas 7% exhibited message rejection.

  • Assessing the impact of a national smoking ban in indoor public places on quit smoking related online searches in China

    Background: Despite the tremendous economic and health costs imposed on China by tobacco use, China lacks a proactive and systematic tobacco control surveillance and evaluation system, hampering research progress on tobacco-focused surveillance and evaluation studies. Methods: This paper uses online search query analyses to investigate changes in online search behavior among Chinese Internet users in response to the adoption of the national indoor public place smoking ban. Baidu Index and Google Trends were used to examine the volume of search queries containing three key search terms “Smoking Ban(s),” “Quit Smoking,” and “Electronic Cigarette(s),” along with the news coverage on the smoking ban, for the period 2009–2011. Findings: Our results show that the announcement and adoption of the indoor public place smoking ban in China generated significant increases in news coverage on smoking bans. There was a strong positive correlation between the media coverage of smoking bans and the volume of “Smoking Ban(s)” and “Quit Smoking” related search queries. The volume of search queries related to “Electronic Cigarette(s)” was also correlated with the smoking ban news coverage. Interpretation: To the extent it altered smoking-related online searches, our analyses suggest that the smoking ban had a significant effect, at least in the short run, on Chinese Internet users’ smoking-related behaviors. This research introduces a novel analytic tool, which could serve as an alternative tobacco control evaluation and behavior surveillance tool in the absence of timely or comprehensive population surveillance system. This research also highlights the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control in China.

  • Association between tobacco and alcohol use among young adult bar patrons: a cross-sectional study in three cities

  • Big Data in Public Health Multidisciplinary Conference

    Conference hosted by the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania and the Health Media Collaboratory of the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the Center of Excellence in Cancer Communication Research at the Annenberg School.

  • Challenges in Enforcing Home Smoking Rules in a Low-Income Population: Implications for Measurement and Intervention Design.

    INTRODUCTION: Smoke-free homes reduce exposure to secondhand smoke, contribute to lower levels of consumption, and help smokers to quit. Even when home smoking rules are established however, they may not be consistently enforced. METHODS: This study uses data from a randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention to create smoke-free homes among callers to the United Way of Greater Atlanta 2-1-1. Participants with partial or full home smoking bans at 6-month follow-up were asked about enforcement challenges, rooms where smoking occurred, and exceptions to the rules. Air nicotine monitors were placed in a subset of homes. RESULTS: Participants (n = 286) were mostly female (84.6%) and African American (84.9%). Most were smokers (79.0%) and reported at least half of their friends and relatives smoked (63.3%). Among those with a full ban, 4.3% reported their rules were broken very often whereas 52.6% stated they were never broken. Bad weather and parties were the most common exceptions to rules. Among nonsmokers with full bans, 16% reported exposure to secondhand smoke in the home 1-3 days in the past week. In multivariate analyses, having a partial ban, being a nonsmoker, and living with three or more smokers predicted higher levels of enforcement challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest the majority of households with newly adopted smoke-free rules had no or rare enforcement challenges, but about one-fifth reported their rules were broken sometimes or very often. Interventions to create smoke-free homes should address enforcement challenges as newly adopted rules may be fragile in some households. IMPLICATIONS: Interventions that promote smoke-free homes should address enforcement challenges.

  • Changes in E-Cigarette Availability Over Time in the United States: 2010 – 2012

    Availability of electronic cigarettes over time, 2010-2012. Data Source: Community POS. Lead Author: Tamkeen Khan